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Earthquake So CA

Discussion in 'OFF TOPIC' started by DR RAM, Mar 29, 2014.

  1. RamFan503

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    Me. I also raced them around the world and caught them from behind right before I caught myself. Chuck Norris.... PUHLEASE!:rolleyes:
     
  2. Prime Time

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    Thanks for clearing that up. I'd guessed I was among royalty when I signed up here. :bow:
     
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  3. Prime Time

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    Fracking and earthquakes: Scientists link rise in seismic activity in Oklahoma to increased oil and gas exploration
    By Tim Walker

    Between 1975 and 2008, Oklahoma recorded an average of no more than six earthquakes per year, yet now it is the second most seismically active of the contiguous United States, beaten only by California. Scientists have linked this surge in seismic activity to a parallel increase in oil and gas exploration, including fracking.

    In 2009, there were almost 50 quakes in Oklahoma. The following year, that number leapt to more than 1,000. Most were not “felt” earthquakes – those of magnitude 2.5 and above, which can be detected by humans. However, the state’s annual record of 222 felt quakes, set in 2013, has already been broken this year, with 253 so far. Seismologist Austin Holland of the Oklahoma Geological Survey told Reuters: “We have had almost as many magnitude 3 and greater already in 2014 than we did for all of 2013… We have already crushed last year’s record for number of earthquakes.”

    Earthquakes rarely cause damage unless they are of magnitude 4 or higher. A 4.3-magnitude temblor struck the same area near Oklahoma City on 30 March. In November 2011, the state suffered a 5.6-magnitude quake – the largest ever recorded in Oklahoma – which destroyed 14 homes.

    Scientists have connected a sharp rise in small earthquakes in several states to the boom in underground oil and gas exploration, notably the controversial practice of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking. Waste water from fracking and oil drilling is pumped back into the earth to be stored in so-called “injection wells”. Several studies have shown that the water, forced deep underground in layers of porous rock, can trigger seismic activity.

    Oil and gas companies insist that the techniques are safe, yet federal scientists believe their activities have contributed to a 20-fold rise in the number of small earthquakes striking the central and southern US in recent years. So-called “earthquake swarms” have occurred not only in Oklahoma, but also in previously sedate regions of Arkansas, Colorado, Ohio and Texas.

    During 2010 and 2011, up to 1,000 micro-earthquakes occurred in and around the town of Greenbrier in Arkansas, thought to have been caused by underground waste-water disposal, which forced open a small and previously inactive seismic fault, generating the quakes – the largest of which had a magnitude of 4.7. The state’s oil and gas commission declared a moratorium on injection wells within 1,000 square miles, and a group of residents filed a class-action lawsuit against two energy companies, Chesapeake Energy and BHP Billiton Petroleum, for the damage caused to their homes. Five homeowners reached an undisclosed settlement with the firms last August.

    Dozens of civil lawsuits related to fracking have been filed since 2009 in eight US states, for complaints including air pollution, noise pollution and groundwater contamination. But the Greenbrier case was the first in which oil and gas companies were sued for causing an earthquake. It may not be the last. Within 24 hours on 10 and 11 March, five earthquakes were recorded at a fracking well in Ohio, the largest of which registered as magnitude 3.

    The state’s government ordered an immediate halt to the operations pending further investigation.

    It is already familiar with the issue. In December 2010, an injection well in Youngstown began deep-storing waste water from fracking operations in neighbouring Pennsylvania. In the centuries since records began in 1776, Youngstown – which sits atop the Marcellus Shale gas-producing region – had never registered a single earthquake. In 2011, it experienced more than 100, with the strongest, a magnitude-3.9 temor, on 31 December.

    The well was shut down shortly afterwards, and the quakes duly stopped. John Kasich, the state governor, issued an executive order demanding operators conduct seismic studies before being issued permits for injection wells.

    The controversy has also come to California, a state that is all too familiar with seismic activity. This year, the Los Angeles city council voted to ban fracking in the city until council members were content that the process would not have a detrimental effect on Angelenos’ drinking water. The risk of earthquakes was also cited in the ban.

    On 17 March a 4.4-magnitude earthquake struck the Santa Monica mountains near Los Angeles, close to an area where oil extraction activities have been reported. Though seismologists said it probably occurred too deep underground to be attributable to fracking, a group of LA council members have demanded an investigation into whether oil or gas exploration could have caused the quake.
     
  4. Angry Ram

    aka Captain RAmerica aka the OG Rammer
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    I see. But I don't blame the agencies. It's not that they thought you were taking toxic materials, but both you and they have regs to follow plus a little thing called the Clean Water Act. Contamination of water supply is very serious (duh), especially since aquifers can and do get depleted rapidly with little time for recharge.

    Also, salts aka brine aren't minor contaminants if they have the potential to enter water bodies or aquifers used for consumption. They need to properly be disposed of or treated. That's probably why they made you test for them.
     
  5. Prime Time

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    MAGNITUDE-7.2 EARTHQUAKE SHAKES MEXICAN CAPITAL
    BY JOSE ANTONIO RIVERA
    ASSOCIATED PRESS


    ACAPULCO, Mexico (AP) -- A powerful magnitude-7.2 earthquake shook central and southern Mexico on Friday, sending panicked people into the streets. Some walls cracked and fell, but there were no reports of major damage or casualties.

    The U.S. Geological Survey said the quake at about 9:30 a.m. (10:30 a.m. EDT; 1430 GMT) was centered on a long-dormant faultline northwest of the Pacific resort of Acapulco, where many Mexicans are vacationing for the Easter holiday.

    It was felt across at least a half-dozen states and Mexico's capital, where it collapsed several walls and left larges cracks in some facades. Debris covered sidewalks around the city.

    Around the region, there were reports of isolated and minor damage, such as fallen fences, trees and broken windows. Chilpancingo, capital of the southern state of Guerrero, where the quake was centered, reported a power outage, but service was restored after 15 minutes.

    In Acapulco, 59-year-old Enedina Ramirez Perez was having breakfast, enjoying the holiday with about 20 family members, when her hotel started to shake.

    "People were turning over chairs in their desperation to get out, grabbing children, trampling people," the Mexico City woman said. "The hotel security was excellent and starting calming people down. They got everyone to leave quietly."

    The quake struck 170 miles (273 kilometers) southwest of Mexico City, where people fled high-rises and took to the streets, many in still in their bathrobes and pajamas on their day off.

    "I started to hear the walls creak and I said, `Let's go,'" said Rodolfo Duarte, 32, who fled his third-floor apartment.

    "This is really strong," said Gabriel Alejandro Hernandez Chavez, 45, an apartment building guard in Mexico City. "And I'm accustomed to earthquakes."

    Mexico City Mayor Miguel Angel Mancera said there small power outages from fallen transformers but officials were working to restore the service.

    The USGS initially calculated the quake's magnitude at 7.5, but later downgraded it to 7.2. It said the quake was centered 22 miles (36 kilometers) northwest of the town of Tecpan de Galeana, and was 15 miles (24 kilometers) deep.

    In many cases of earthquakes in Mexico, it can take time to receive word from remote areas near the epicenter, where damage could be more extensive. There were no early reports of serious damage or injuries near the epicenter in Tecpan de Galeana.

    Friday's quake occurred along a section of the Pacific Coast known as the Guerrero Seismic Gap, a 125-mile (200-kilometer) section where tectonic plates meet and have been locked, meaning huge amounts of energy are being stored up with potentially devastating effects, said USGS seismologist Gavin Hayes.

    The last large quake that occurred along the section was a magnitude-7.6 temblor in 1911, Hayes said.

    He said scientists will be watching the area more intensely because moderate quakes such as Friday's can destabilize the surrounding sections of seismic plate and increase the chance of a more powerful temblor.

    The USGS says the Guerrero Gap has the potential to produce a quake as strong as magnitude 8.4, potentially much more powerful than the magnitude-8.1 quake that killed 9,500 people and devastated large sections of Mexico City in 1985.

    Mexico City itself is vulnerable even to distant earthquakes because much of it sits atop the muddy sediments of drained lake beds that quiver as quake waves hit.

    The 1985 quake was centered 250 miles (400 kilometers) from the capital on the Pacific Coast.
     
  6. Ramhusker

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    I'm thinking Bruce Lee!
     
  7. RamFan503

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    I get all that and agree. But if they were making us test in that situation. How would fracking water not be tested before release?
     
  8. Angry Ram

    aka Captain RAmerica aka the OG Rammer
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    Good question, and that I honestly don't know. You would think it should be. EPA is going to regulate it, so it has to meet certain levels BEFORE it can be sent in for treatment then released.

    I wish there were a solid way to reuse fracturing water multiple times before disposal; diluting it until it's potential harm is smaller. But as far as I know, there isn't.